Puppet Dashboard and selinux

Tags: puppet selinux

Once I got a rough handle on setting up Puppet, I decided to get Puppet
Dashboard
working on my puppetmaster (a Centos 6 server) to have a
sort of web interface to view puppet statuses. Since I already have the
puppetlabs repositories setup from when I installed puppet, this was
almost as simple as running “yum install puppet-dashboard”.

You then go to /usr/share/puppet-dashboard and follow the install
guide
to get the database working. Then you can run it locally using
the “sudo -u puppet-dashboard ./script/server -e production” command or
starting the service (service puppet-dashboard start). I recommed
running it manually the first few times to make sure everything is
working.

At this point, I was able to browse to http://puppetmaster:3000/ and
view a nice looking dashboard with no hosts checked in. I then made sure
to add the following to puppetmaster’s puppet.conf [master] section and
restart puppet.

reports = http, store
reporturl = http://localhost:3000/reports/upload

I performed a “puppet agent –test” on one of my puppets, and here is
where I ran into trouble. Everything appeared to work, but no report or
“pending task” showed up in the Dashboard. I ran the Dashboard locally
so I could see the http request coming in. No request. I double checked
my configuration, everything looked good.

Finally, I ran my puppetmaster in debug/no-daemonize mode.
(/usr/sbin/puppetmaster –debug –no-daemonize) so I could watch what
was happening. However, in this mode, it worked fine. I ran
/usr/sbin/puppetmaster without debugging and it still worked. The
reports would get submitted to dashboard if I ran puppetmaster directly,
but not if I started it with the init scripts.

I couldn’t find any differences between how the init script was starting
puppetmaster vs me starting it manually. However, I did come across this
entry in /var/log/messages:

 Jul 25 10:15:16 puppetmasterj puppet-master[11988]: Compiled catalog for puppet2.lab in environment production in 1.16 seconds
 Jul 25 10:15:17 puppetmasterj puppet-master[11988]: Report processor failed: Permission denied - connect(2)

Which led me to the following entry in audit.log

 type=AVC msg=audit(1343225819.078:1582): avc:  denied  { name_connect } for  pid=11988 comm="puppetmasterd" dest=3000 scontext=unconfined_u:system_r:puppetmaster_t:s0 tcontext=system_u:object_r:ntop_port_t:s0 tclass=tcp_socket

This was an selinux issue. I quickly ascertained that turning enforcing
off in selinux allowed my reports to get through. I couldn’t find anyone
else online encountering this issue. However, many people disable
selinux enforcing early on and I guess the cross-section of
puppet-dashboard users and those using selinux enforcing is somewhat
small.

How to fix this? There is a set of python programs called “audit2why”
and “audit2allow” as part of the policycoreutils-python package. These
tools will parse entries from the audit.log and either explain why an
action was denied or provide a solution. You can get these tools by
doing a “yum install policycoreutils-python”.

Now we can use audit2allow to parse our audit.log error. You’ll want to
run the tool, paste in your log entry, and then hit Ctrl+D on a blank
line.

 [[email protected] tmp]# audit2allow -m puppetmaster
 type=AVC msg=audit(1343232143.497:1617): avc:  denied  { name_connect } for  pid=12552 comm="puppetmasterd" dest=3000 scontext=unconfined_u:system_r:puppetmaster_t:s0 tcontext=system_u:object_r:ntop_port_t:s0 tclass=tcp_socket
 module puppetmaster 1.0;
 require {
     type puppetmaster_t;
     type ntop_port_t;
     class tcp_socket name_connect;
 }
 #============= puppetmaster_t ==============
 allow puppetmaster_t ntop_port_t:tcp_socket name_connect;

The above gives you a textual view of a module you can create to allow
puppetmaster to make an outbound connection. audit2allow will even
generate that module with the -M option.

 [[email protected] tmp]# audit2allow -M puppetmaster
 type=AVC msg=audit(1343232143.497:1617): avc:  denied  { name_connect } for  pid=12552 comm="puppetmasterd" dest=3000 scontext=unconfined_u:system_r:puppetmaster_t:s0 tcontext=system_u:object_r:ntop_port_t:s0 tclass=tcp_socket
 ******************** IMPORTANT ***********************
 To make this policy package active, execute:
 semodule -i puppetmaster.pp

That generated the module “puppetmaster.pp”. Despite the pp extension,
this is not a puppet manifest, but an selinux binary module. Let’s
install it.

 [[email protected] tmp]# semodule -i puppetmaster.pp

With that, puppetmaster can communicate with dashboard and reports are
flowing. The only remaining thing left to do is to file a bug report. As
it happened, someone had posted a bug report similar to this for
documentation on the puppetdb project. I decided to append to that
issue, but I suggested migrating the issue to the main puppet project.
Issue #15567.

Using puppet to install djbdns

This is a basic walkthrough of getting a slightly complex “step by step
to install” program like djbdns to install under puppet (in this case,
under Ubuntu 12.04). It shows building the manifest, testing it, and
some possible gotchas.

I am generally following the guide put together by Higher Logic[1], with
a few changes of my own.

Step 1: Installation
I use the dbndns fork of djbdns, which has a few patches installed that
djbdns lacks. In fact, the djbdns package in Debian/Ubuntu is a virtual
package that really install dbndns. To install it normally, you would
type “sudo apt-get install dbndns”. This would also install daemontools
and daemontools-run. However, we’ll also need make and ucspi-tcp.

We’re going to do this the puppet way. I’m assuming my puppet
configuration in in /etc/puppet, node manifests are in
/etc/puppet/nodes, and modules are in /etc/puppet/modules.

a. Create the dbndns module with a package definition to install

sudo mkdir -p /etc/puppet/modules/dbndns/manifests
    sudo vi /etc/puppet/modules/dbndns/manifests/init.pp

        class dbndns {
            package {
                    dbndns:
                    ensure => present;





ucspi-tcp:
                    ensure => present;

make:
                    ensure => present;
            }

}

b. Create a file for your node (ie: puppet2.example.net)

sudo vi /etc/puppet/nodes/puppet2.example.net.pp

        node    ‘puppet2.lab.example.net’ {
            include dbndns
        }





c. Test
Ok, to test on your puppet client, run “sudo puppet agent –test”

[email protected]:~# sudo puppet agent –test
    info: Retrieving plugin
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/facter_dot_d.rb
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/root_home.rb
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/puppet_vardir.rb
    info: Caching catalog for puppet2.lab.example.net
    info: Applying configuration version ‘1340213237’
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/Package[dbndns]/ensure: created
    notice: Finished catalog run in 3.39 seconds







Here we can see our dbndns package installed. But is it running? Well,
djbdns uses daemontools, which runs svscan, and some searching online
shows that in Ubuntu 12.04/Precise, this is now an upstart job. svscan
is not running. So let’s make it run. Add the following to your init.pp
(within the module definition):

define the service to restart

        service { “svscan”:
                ensure  => “running”,
                provider => “upstart”,
                require => Package[“dbndns”],
        }




Now back on puppet2, let’s test it.

[email protected]:~# sudo puppet agent –test
    info: Retrieving plugin
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/facter_dot_d.rb
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/root_home.rb
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/puppet_vardir.rb
    info: Caching catalog for puppet2.lab.example.net
    info: Applying configuration version ‘1340213237’
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/Service[svscan]/ensure: ensure changed
‘stopped’ to ‘running’
    notice: Finished catalog run in 0.47 seconds







We now told puppet to ensure that svscan is running. The “provider”
option tells it to use upstart instead of /etc/init.d/ scripts or the
service command. Also, we make sure that it doesn’t attempt to start
svscan unless dbndns is already installed.

Now we have daemontools running, but we haven’t got it start our tinydns
service yet. To do that, we need to create some users and configure the
service.

Step 2: Create users

Going back to our guide, our next step is to create users. We can do
that in puppet as well.
    # Users for the chroot jail
    adduser –no-create-home –disabled-login –shell /bin/false dnslog
    adduser –no-create-home –disabled-login –shell /bin/false
tinydns
    adduser –no-create-home –disabled-login –shell /bin/false
dnscache



So in our init.pp module file, we need to define our users:

user { “dnslog”:
            shell => “/bin/false”,
            managehome => “no”,
            ensure => “present”,
        }

    user { “tinydns”:
            shell => “/bin/false”,
            managehome => “no”,
            ensure => “present”,
        }

    user { “dnscache”:
            shell => “/bin/false”,
            managehome => “no”,
            ensure => “present”,
        }















Back on puppet2, we can give that a test.

[email protected]:~$ sudo puppet agent –test
    info: Retrieving plugin
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/facter_dot_d.rb
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/root_home.rb
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/puppet_vardir.rb
    info: Caching catalog for puppet2.lab.example.net
    info: Applying configuration version ‘1340215757’
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/User[dnscache]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/User[tinydns]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/User[dnslog]/ensure: created
    notice: Finished catalog run in 0.86 seconds
   [email protected]:~$ cat /etc/passwd | grep dns
    dnscache:x:1001:1001::/home/dnscache:/bin/false
    tinydns:x:1002:1002::/home/tinydns:/bin/false
    dnslog:x:1003:1003::/home/dnslog:/bin/false













So far, so good. Now we have to do the configuration, which will require
executing some commands.

Step 3 – Configuration
Our next step are the following commands:

Config

    tinydns-conf tinydns dnslog /etc/tinydns/ 1.2.3.4
    dnscache-conf dnscache dnslog /etc/dnscache 127.0.0.1
    cd /etc/dnscache; touch /etc/dnscache/root/ip/127.0.0
    mkdir /etc/service ; cd /etc/service ; ln -sf /etc/tinydns/ ; ln -sf
/etc/dnscache

The first two commands create our service directories. Authoratative
tinydns is set to listen on 1.2.3.4 and dnscache is set to listen on
127.0.0.1. The 3rd command creates a file that restricts dnscache to
only respond to requests from IPs starting with 127.0.0. This is isn’t
necessary, but the challenge is interesting.





What we want to do first is see if /etc/tinydns and /etc/dnscache exist
and if not, run the -conf program. We also need to know the IP address.
Fortunately, puppet provides this as a variable “$ipaddress”. Try
running the “facter” command.

Puppet has a property call creates that is ideal. If the directory
specified by creates does not exist, it will perform the associated
commands. Here are our new lines:

exec { “configure-tinydns”:
            command => “/usr/bin/tinydns-conf tinydns dnslog
/etc/tinydns $ipaddress”,
            creates => “/etc/tinydns”,
            require => Package[‘dbndns’],
    }



exec { “configure-dnscache”:
            command => “/usr/bin/dnscache-conf dnscache dnslog
/etc/dnscache 127.0.0.1”,
            creates => “/etc/dnscache”,
            require => Package[‘dbndns’],
    }



Thos will configure tinydns and dnscache, and then we can restrict
dnscache

file { “/etc/dnscache/root/ip/127.0.0”:
            ensure => “present”,
            owner => “dnscache”,
            require => Exec[“configure-dnscache”],
    }



Then, we need to create the /etc/service directory and bring tinydns and
dnscache under svscan’s control.

    file { “/etc/service”:
            ensure => “directory”,
            require => Package[“dbndns”],
    }




file { “/etc/service/tinydns”:
            ensure => “link”,
            target => “/etc/tinydns”,
            require => [ File[‘/etc/service’],
Exec[“configure-tinydns”], ],
    }



file { “/etc/service/dnscache”:
            ensure => “link”,
            target => “/etc/dnscache”,
            require => [  File[‘/etc/service’],
Exec[“configure-dnscache”]  ],
    }



And our tests:

[email protected]:~$ sudo puppet agent –test
    info: Retrieving plugin
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/facter_dot_d.rb
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/root_home.rb
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/puppet_vardir.rb
    info: Caching catalog for puppet2.lab.example.net
    info: Applying configuration version ‘1340218775’
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/Exec[configure-dnscache]/returns:
executed successfull
    notice:
/Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/dnscache/root/ip/127.0.0]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/service/dnscache]/ensure:
created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/Exec[configure-tinydns]/returns:
executed successfully
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/service/tinydns]/ensure:
created
    notice: Finished catalog run in 0.59 seconds
   [email protected]:~$ ls /etc/service/tinydns/root/
    add-alias  add-alias6  add-childns  add-host  add-host6  add-mx 
add-ns  data  Makefile
   [email protected]:~$ ps ax | grep supervise
     7932 ?        S      0:00 supervise dnscache
     7933 ?        S      0:00 supervise log
     7934 ?        S      0:00 supervise tinydns
     7935 ?        S      0:00 supervise log


















Doing a dig www.example.net @localhost returns 192.0.43.10, so dnscache
works.

Now, let’s check tinydns. No domains are configured yet, so let’s put
example.com in there. Edit /etc/tinydns/root/data and put these lines in
it, substituting 10.100.0.178 for your own “public” IP address.

&example.com::ns0.example.com.:3600 
Zexample.com:ns0.example.com.:hostmaster.example.com.:1188079131:16384:2048:1048576:2560:2560
 +ns0.example.com:10.100.0.178:3600

Then “make” the data.cdb file:

cd /etc/tinydns/root ; sudo make

Now test:

[email protected]:/etc/tinydns/root$ dig ns0.example.com @10.100.0.178

; <<>> DiG 9.8.1-P1 <<>> ns0.example.com @10.100.0.178
    ;; global options: +cmd
    ;; Got answer:
    ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 25433
    ;; flags: qr aa rd; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL:
0
    ;; WARNING: recursion requested but not available




;; QUESTION SECTION:
    ;ns0.example.com.               IN      A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
    ns0.example.com.        3600    IN      A       10.100.0.178

;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
    example.com.            3600    IN      NS      ns0.example.com.

Ok, for a final test, let’s remove everything and run it again.

sudo service svscan stop
    sudo apt-get purge daemontools daemontools-run ucspi-tcp dbndns
    sudo rm -rf /etc/service /etc/tinydns /etc/dnscache
    sudo userdel tinydns
    sudo userdel dnslog
    sudo userdel dnscache

Let’s do this:






[email protected]:~$ sudo puppet agent –test
    info: Retrieving plugin
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/facter_dot_d.rb
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/root_home.rb
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/puppet_vardir.rb
    info: Caching catalog for puppet2.lab.example.net
    info: Applying configuration version ‘1340220032’
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/Service[svscan]/ensure: ensure changed
‘stopped’ to ‘running’
    err: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/Exec[configure-dnscache]/returns: change
from notrun to 0 failed: /usr/bin/dnscache-conf dnscache dnslog
/etc/dnscache 127.0.0.1 returned 111 instead of one of [0] at
/etc/puppet/modules/dbndns/manifests/init.pp:47
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/User[dnscache]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/User[tinydns]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/service]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/service/dnscache]: Dependency
Exec[configure-dnscache] has failures: true
    warning: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/service/dnscache]: Skipping
because of failed dependencies
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/User[dnslog]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/dnscache/root/ip/127.0.0]:
Dependency Exec[configure-dnscache] has failures: true
    warning: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/dnscache/root/ip/127.0.0]:
Skipping because of failed dependencies
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/Exec[configure-tinydns]/returns:
executed successfully
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/service/tinydns]/ensure:
created
    notice: Finished catalog run in 0.98 seconds


















Looks like we had something fail. Oops! configure-dnscache failed. We
see that the user dnscache and tinydns were created after. So we need to
make sure that the users are created before we can configure the
service. This needs to happen to tinydns as well as dnscache. Good thing
we did this test so it doesn’t bite us in the future. Let’s adjust our
init.pp

exec { “configure-tinydns”:
                command => “/usr/bin/tinydns-conf tinydns dnslog
/etc/tinydns $ipaddress”,
                creates => “/etc/tinydns”,
                require => [ Package[‘dbndns’], User[‘dnscache’],
User[‘dnslog’] ],
        }



exec { “configure-dnscache”:
                command => “/usr/bin/dnscache-conf dnscache dnslog
/etc/dnscache 127.0.0.1”,
                creates => “/etc/dnscache”,
                require => [ Package[‘dbndns’],  User[‘dnscache’],
User[‘dnslog’] ],
        }



Also, let’s go ahead and run our commands above to get rid of everything
again.

[email protected]:~$ sudo puppet agent –test
    info: Retrieving plugin
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/facter_dot_d.rb
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/root_home.rb
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/puppet_vardir.rb
    info: Caching catalog for puppet2.lab.example.net
    info: Applying configuration version ‘1340220641’
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/Service[svscan]/ensure: ensure changed
‘stopped’ to ‘running’
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/User[dnscache]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/User[tinydns]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/service]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/User[dnslog]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/Exec[configure-dnscache]/returns:
executed successfully
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/service/dnscache]/ensure:
created
    notice:
/Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/dnscache/root/ip/127.0.0]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/Exec[configure-tinydns]/returns:
executed successfully
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/service/tinydns]/ensure:
created
    notice: Finished catalog run in 1.05 seconds
















Everything looks good, but when we run “ps ax | grep svscan” we don’t
see svscan running. So we check /var/log/syslog and see this

Jun 20 19:31:35 puppet2 kernel: [ 9646.348251] init: svscan main
process ended, respawning
    Jun 20 19:31:35 puppet2 kernel: [ 9646.359074] init: svscan
respawning too fast, stopped

If we start it by hand, it works, so what happened? /etc/service didn’t
exist yet.


[email protected]:~$ sudo service svscan start
    svscan start/running, process 9726
   [email protected]:~$ ps ax | grep supervise
     9730 ?        S      0:00 supervise dnscache
     9731 ?        S      0:00 supervise log
     9732 ?        S      0:00 supervise tinydns
     9733 ?        S      0:00 supervise log





Let’s fix that.

define the service to restart

        service { “svscan”:
                ensure  => “running”,
                provider => “upstart”,
                require => [ Package[“dbndns”], File[“/etc/service”] ]
        }




Now, let’s give it a go:

[email protected]:~$ sudo puppet agent –test
    info: Retrieving plugin
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/facter_dot_d.rb
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/root_home.rb
    info: Loading facts in /var/lib/puppet/lib/facter/puppet_vardir.rb
    info: Caching catalog for puppet2.lab.example.net
    info: Applying configuration version ‘1340220885’
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/User[dnscache]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/User[tinydns]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/service]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/Service[svscan]/ensure: ensure changed
‘stopped’ to ‘running’
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/User[dnslog]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/Exec[configure-dnscache]/returns:
executed successfully
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/service/dnscache]/ensure:
created
    notice:
/Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/dnscache/root/ip/127.0.0]/ensure: created
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/Exec[configure-tinydns]/returns:
executed successfully
    notice: /Stage[main]/Dbndns/File[/etc/service/tinydns]/ensure:
created
    notice: Finished catalog run in 1.24 seconds
   [email protected]:~$ ps ax | grep svscan
    10613 ?        Ss     0:00 /bin/sh /usr/bin/svscanboot
    10615 ?        S      0:00 svscan /etc/service
    10639 pts/0    S+     0:00 grep –color=auto svscan
   [email protected]:~$ ps ax | grep supervise
    10630 ?        S      0:00 supervise dnscache
    10631 ?        S      0:00 supervise log
    10632 ?        S      0:00 supervise tinydns
    10633 ?        S      0:00 supervise log
    10641 pts/0    S+     0:00 grep –color=auto supervise


























Excellent! We now have a working puppet class that will install puppet,
configure it, and get it up and running. At this point, we don’t have
any records being served by tinydns, but it wouldn’t be hard to push a
file to /etc/tinydns/root/data and execute a command to perform the
make. In my case, I will be using VegaDNS’s update-data.sh[2] to pull
the data remotely.

Here is our completed modules/dbndns/init.pp:


class dbndns {

package {
                dbndns:
                ensure => present;

ucspi-tcp:
                ensure => present;

make:
                ensure => present;
        }

define the service to restart

        service { “svscan”:
                ensure  => “running”,
                provider => “upstart”,
                require => [ Package[“dbndns”], File[“/etc/service”] ]
        }




user { “dnslog”:
                        shell => “/bin/false”,
                        managehome => false,
                        ensure => “present”,
                }



user { “tinydns”:
                        shell => “/bin/false”,
                        managehome => false,
                        ensure => “present”,
                }



user { “dnscache”:
                        shell => “/bin/false”,
                        managehome => false,
                        ensure => “present”,
                }



exec { “configure-tinydns”:
                command => “/usr/bin/tinydns-conf tinydns dnslog
/etc/tinydns $ipaddress”,
                creates => “/etc/tinydns”,
                require => [ Package[‘dbndns’], User[‘dnscache’],
User[‘dnslog’] ],
        }



exec { “configure-dnscache”:
                command => “/usr/bin/dnscache-conf dnscache dnslog
/etc/dnscache 127.0.0.1”,
                creates => “/etc/dnscache”,
                require => [ Package[‘dbndns’],  User[‘dnscache’],
User[‘dnslog’] ],
        }



file { “/etc/dnscache/root/ip/127.0.0”:
                ensure => “present”,
                owner => “dnscache”,
                require => Exec[“configure-dnscache”],
        }



file { “/etc/service”:
                ensure => “directory”,
                require => Package[“dbndns”],
        }


file { “/etc/service/tinydns”:
                ensure => “link”,
                target => “/etc/tinydns”,
                require => [ File[‘/etc/service’],
                                        Exec[“configure-tinydns”],
                                ],
        }





file { “/etc/service/dnscache”:
                ensure => “link”,
                target => “/etc/dnscache”,
                require => [  File[‘/etc/service’],
                                        Exec[“configure-dnscache”]
                                ],
        }





}


[1]
http://higherlogic.com.au/2011/djbdns-on-ubuntu-10-04-server-migration-from-bind-and-zone-transfers-to-secondaries-bind/
[2] https://github.com/shupp/VegaDNS/blob/master/update-data.sh